Over exposure to the sun is the main cause of premature aging in skin which is known as photoaging. The sun’s UVA rays are primarily responsible, but high-energy visible (HEVIS) light can also cause the oxidative stress that damages cellular DNA. As a result, skin starts to form wrinkles, sag and develop pigmentation issues before its time. Ensuring skin is properly protected year-round, and using superior sun care products, can help to prevent photoaging.
Photoaging What causes it and how can I prevent it?
What is photoaging?
Photoaging is premature skin aging caused by over exposure to the sun’s rays.
When skin ages prematurely it develops signs of aging faster than one would expect. Research shows that up to 90% of all symptoms of premature skin aging are caused by UV
1 Ramos-e-Silva et al., ‘Anti-aging cosmetics: Facts and controversies’. Clin Dermatol. 2013 Nov-Dec; 31(6): 750-8.
What is the difference between general skin aging and premature skin aging?
As skin ages, it changes:
- The collagen and elastin responsible for the plumpness of youthful skin deplete skin starts to lose volume and sag and it develops fine lines and wrinkles.
- Skin is less able to attract and retain the moisture it needs and skin’s own production of Natural Moisturizing Factors depletes. It becomes drier.
- It can develop uneven pigmentation (a condition known as dyspigmentation or hyperpigmentation) and solar lentigines (more commonly known as age spots or sun spots ).
You can find out more in How does skin change over the years?
There are two types of skin aging − intrinsic and extrinsic:
As we age, so does our skin. This type of aging is entirely natural and there’s nothing we can do about it. It is known as intrinsic (or chronological) aging. Intrinsic aging is brought about by internal factors such as our genetics and the hormonal changes that happen at the different stages of life.
Extrinsic aging, on the other hand, is controllable. Extrinsic aging is brought about by external factors such as the environment (weather conditions and sun exposure), lifestyle choices (such as smoking and drinking alcohol) and medication. These factors can cause skin to age prematurely.
A UV camera can reveal sun-induced skin damage before it is visible to the human eye.
What causes photoaging?
Photoaging is caused by overexposure to the sun.
The photons in sun’s UVB rays are absorbed by skin cells and cause direct damage to cellular DNA. UVB is what causes our skin to burn in the sun and the direct DNA damage can also lead to skin diseases including skin cancer.
While this direct DNA damage plays a part in the photoaging of skin, it’s the sun’s UVA rays that are the main cause of premature aging in skin. UVA rays also damage cellular DNA, but they do so indirectly: they trigger the formation of free radicals and it’s these free radicals that damage our DNA in a process known as oxidative stress. Recent research has also shown that high-energy visible ( HEVIS) light rays contribute to the premature aging of skin, though to a much lesser extent than UVA. Read more in How the sun ’ s UVA , UVB and HEVIS light rays affect skin.
UVA rays are less intense than UVB, but they are 30 to 50 times more prevalent and are present with relatively equal intensity during all daylight hours throughout the year so it is important to apply sun protection on a daily basis, and all-year-round, to prevent long-term damage. We also recommend that you look out for suncare products that include protection from HEVIS light.
How can I protect my skin from photoaging?
The best way to protect skin from photoaging is to limit the time spent in the sun, avoid it during its most intense hours, wear protective clothing and apply a superior sun protection product that offers the level of protection that your skin needs. We also recommend that you use sun protection products that have been specially formulated to suit your skin type and condition. As the face, hands and décolleté are more exposed to the sun than the rest of the body these areas need specific and consistent year-round protection to help reduce visible signs of aging.
All face and body sunscreens in the Eucerin sun protection range for adults include Eucerin’s Advanced Spectral Technology which combines broadband and photostable UVA/UVB filters1 for superior UV protection with Licochalcone A, a powerful antioxidant which works to neutralize the free radicals caused by UV and HEVIS light. The Eucerin Kids range of sun protection products for children also works to protect sensitive young skin from premature skin aging. Find out more in Why do babies and children need special sun protection?
If photoaging is your primary skin concern try:
- Eucerin Sun Fluid Photoaging Control SPF 50 and Eucerin Sun Creme Tinted Photoaging Control SPF 50+ Medium
If hyperpigmentation on your face is your primary skin concern try Eucerin Even Pigment Perfector Sun Fluid SPF 50+
In addition to Eucerin’s Advanced Spectral Technology it contains Glycyrrhetinic Acid (to support skin’s own DNA repair mechanism) and Thiamidol. A unique and patented active, Thiamidol acts at the root cause of hyperpigmentation.
While prevention is best, once you have dark spots Thiamidol is clinically and dermatologically proven to reduce dark spots and prevent their re-appearance.
You can read more about how to minimize the risks of exposure, how to choose the right sun protection products for your skin and how best to apply them in Why do I
need daily sun protection for my face? and How should I protect my body from the sun?
1 Meeting the highest standards for UVA and UVB protection as defined by Cosmetics Europe. The levels of UVA protection are higher than the EU requirement.